The Italian language, promoted by the Corsican Italians, had been the language of culture in Corsica since the Renaissance. The Gallurese variety is spoken in the extreme north of Sardinia, including the region of Gallura and the archipelago of La Maddalena, and Sassarese is spoken in Sassari and in its neighbourhood, in the northwest of Sardinia. Other Corsican authors in Italian were Domenicu Versini (nicknamed Maistrale), Matteu Rocca (I lucchetti in 1925), Dumenicu Carlotti (Pampame corse in 1926), Ageniu Grimaldi and Ugo Babbiziu (Una filza di francesismi colti nelle parlate dialettali corse in 1930). The Southern Corsican macro variety (Suttanacciu, Suttanu, Pumontincu or Oltramontano) is the most archaic and conservative group, spoken in the districts of Sartène and Porto-Vecchio. Though influenced by Gallurese, it has maintained the original characteristics of Southern Corsican. Candu facìa bugghju, a noi stéddi ci mandàani a fa' granchi, cù la luci, chi vi vulìa pa' accindì (attivà) l'ami pa' piscà. Italian irredentism in Corsica was a cultural and historical movement promoted by Italians and by people from Corsica who identified themselves as part of Italy rather than France, and promoted the Italian annexation of the island. Whatever language was spoken is still visible in the toponymy or in some words, for instance in the Gallurese dialect spoken in Sardinia zerru 'pig'. Una mattina in cui ci eravamo alzati che era ancora buio, quando siamo andati a prendere il sacchetto era vuoto e i granchi giravano per tutte le camere, e c'è voluta più di mezz'ora per raccoglierli tutti. Quand'ellu facìa bughju, à noi zitèlli ci mandàvanu à fà granchi, cù u lume, chì ci vulìa per innescà l'ami per a pesca. On the Maddalena archipelago, which was culturally Corsican but had been annexed to the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia a short while before Corsica was ceded by Genoa to France in 1767, the local dialect (called isulanu or maddaleninu) was brought by fishermen and shepherds from Bonifacio over a long period of immigration in the 17th and 18th centuries. His Corsican Constitution of 1755 was in Italian and was used as a model for the American constitution of 1787. These included Marco Angeli, Bertino Poli, Marchetti, Luccarotti, Grimaldi, and finally Petru Giovacchini, who was later proposed as a possible governor of Corsica in case Italy had annexed it. Una mane chì c'èramu arritti ch'èra sempre bughju, quandu simu andati à piglià u sacchettu ellu èra biotu è i granchi giravanu per tutte e camere, è ci hè vulsuta più di méz'ora à ricoglieli tutti. M'ammentu, quand'érami zitéddi, chì i nosci mammi ci mandàiani da par no' a fàcci u bagnu. At that time the monasteries held considerable land on Corsica and many of the churchmen were notaries. Ferdinand Gregorovius, a 19th-century traveller and enthusiast of Corsican culture, reported that the preferred form of the literary tradition of his time was the vocero, a type of polyphonic ballad originating from funeral obsequies. " In 1990 out of a total population of about 254,000 the percentage had declined to 50 percent, with only 10 percent using it as a first language. Colonel Pietro Cristofini (or Petru Simon Cristofini) was born in Calenzana (near Calvi, Corsica) on 26 May 1903 and in 1939 became a captain of the 3rd Algerian Fusiliers regiment. aceddu, beddu, quiddu, ziteddu, famidda), and the conditional tense formed in -ìa (e.g. Corsican is closely related to the Tuscan varieties from the Italian peninsula, and therefore to the Florentine-based standard Italian. This is not irredentism, Corsican is more similar to Italian than any other dialect For centuries, the island was ruled by the Republic of Genoa, one of the many city-states that existed in the Italian peninsula before the modern Italian state was born in 1861.  Moreover, 10 percent of the population of Corsica speaks only French, while 62 percent speak both French and at least some Corsican. Rainero.. In the 14th century there was La Cronica of Giovanni della Grossa (1388-1464), Pier Antonio Monteggiani (1464-1525) and Marcantoni Ceccaldi (1526-1559). An analogue situation was valid for Sardinian and Sicilian as well. Un Corse du Sud parlant corse en toscane sera identifié comme calabrais; un corse du nord parlant corse en Sardaigne centrale sera identifié comme italien; quand à un sarde parlant sarde dan la péninsule, il ne sera pas compris.>> Fusina, Ghjacumu; Ettori, Fernand (1981). In older writing, the acute accent is sometimes found on stressed ⟨e⟩, the circumflex on stressed ⟨o⟩, indicating respectively (/e/) and (/o/) phonemes. The food on Sardinia leans towards Italian with pizza, pasta and fish. The occupation of the island by the Vandals around the year 469 marked the end of authoritative influence by Latin speakers (see Medieval Corsica).  Even Paoli's second Corsican Constitution, for the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom in 1794, was in Italian. Giuseppe Garibaldi called for the inclusion of the "Corsican Italians" within Italy when Rome was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, but Victor Emmanuel II did not agree to it. «Il sassarese deriva dalla lingua italiana e, più precisamente, dal toscano antico, poi trasformatosi lentamente in dialetto popolare fin dal secolo XII, quando ancora i borghesi e i nobili parlavano in sardo logudorese. Sò nato in Corsica e c'hajo passato li méglio anni de la mi' giovinezza. Just as Corsica was to France (see below), Sardinia was once Italy's Wild West. Notable dialects are those from around Taravo (retroflex -dd- only for historical -ll-: frateddu, suredda, beddu; preservation of the palatal lateral approximant: piglià, famiglia, figliolu, vogliu; does not preserve the Latin short vowels: seccu, peru, rossu, croci, pozzu), Sartène (preserving the Latin short vowels: siccu, piru, russu, cruci, puzzu; changing historical -rn- to -rr-: forru, carri, corru; substituting the stop for the palatal lateral approximant: piddà, famidda, fiddolu, voddu; imperfect tense like cantàvami, cantàvani; masculine plurals ending in a: l'ochja, i poma; having eddu/edda/eddi as personal pronouns), the Alta Rocca (the most conservative area in Corsica, being very close to the varieties spoken in Northern Sardinia), and the Southern region located between the hinterlands of Porto-Vecchio and Bonifacio (masculine singulars always ending in u: fiumu, paesu, patronu; masculine plurals always ending in a: i letta, i solda, i ponta, i foca, i mura, i loca, i balcona; imperfect tense like cantàiami, cantàiani).
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